Deriving hydrogen from fossil fuels emits CO 2 , so scaling the process up would increase greenhouse gas emissions unless the associated carbon were captured and stored for more details on carbon capture and sequestration, see Unit 13, "Looking Forward: Our Global Experiment". Hydrogen can be burned directly to generate energy or used in devices such as fuel cells that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, with water as a byproduct Fig.
Hydrogen fuel cell See larger image. Existing fuel cell technologies can convert as much as 70 percent of hydrogen's energy content to electricity.
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None of the basic designs in use today are cheap and technically simple enough yet for mass production, although they have been used for applications such as producing power on manned space missions. Over the past several years, politicians and scientists have endorsed the idea of converting to a hydrogen economy. This transition poses many challenges. In addition to producing hydrogen economically and commercializing fuel cells, it takes seven times as much hydrogen on a volume basis to produce the same amount of energy in a gallon of gasoline.
Why Asia's biggest economies are backing hydrogen fuel cell cars | The Japan Times
Therefore, adopting hydrogen as a fuel will mean building new energy storage and distribution systems nationwide. Thermal processes for hydrogen production typically involve steam reforming, a high-temperature process in which steam reacts with a hydrocarbon fuel to produce hydrogen. Many hydrocarbon fuels can be reformed to produce hydrogen, including natural gas, diesel, renewable liquid fuels, gasified coal, or gasified biomass.
Water can be separated into oxygen and hydrogen through a process called electrolysis. Solar-driven processes use light as the agent for hydrogen production. There are a few solar-driven processes, including photobiological, photoelectrochemical, and solar thermochemical.
The truth about hydrogen, the latest, trendiest low-carbon solution
Photobiological processes use the natural photosynthetic activity of bacteria and green algae to produce hydrogen. Photoelectrochemical processes use specialized semiconductors to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen.
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Solar thermochemical hydrogen production uses concentrated solar power to drive water splitting reactions often along with other species such as metal oxides. Shorter communications are also welcome. With the goal of recognizing the distinguished works of IJHE authors, the editors of IJHE are excited to announce the establishment of ten awards, to be given to the authors of the most cited papers in five categories.
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Unit 10: Energy Challenges // Section 12: Hydrogen Power
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